The Rutgers University Center of Ocean Observing Leadership integrates across interdisciplinary scientific research, education and outreach and the application of an operational ocean observing system. Faculty and students comprising the scientific teams participate in collaborative research programs in which academic, industry and government partnerships are forged between physicists and biologists, between scientists and engineers, and between observationalists and modelers. The education group is the focal point for outreach activities to the K-12 community and to non-science majors within Rutgers. The Operations Center maintains a sustained coastal ocean observatory that provides real-time ocean data to the research and education groups and also serves as the training ground for Operational Oceanography students.
The COOL Operations Center
The COOL Operations Center maintains the world’s most advanced coastal ocean observatory. State-of-the-art sampling capabilities are continuously upgraded as new technologies developed and demonstrated by the research group are immediately transitioned into the operational setting of the Center. Cost-effective sustained spatial sampling of the coastal ocean is accomplished with a variety of new platforms and sensors that include: (1) the local acquisition of satellite imagery from the international constellation of thermal infrared and ocean color sensors, (2) a triple-nested multi-static HF radar network for surface current mapping and waves, (3) a fleet of long-duration autonomous underwater gliders equipped with physical and optical sensors, and (4) a cabled observatory for water column time series. Raw datasets are shared with a variety of super-users throughout the U.S. for real-time backups, data archiving, and advanced product generation. Operational data products are produced in real time and displayed on the World Wide Web for use by scientists, educators, decision-makers and the general public. Website access peaks in the summer, reaching 7,000,000 hits. Visitors Log
CODAR HF Radar Network
Teledyne Webb Slocum Glider Fleet
Slocum Gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that propel themselves through the water by changing their buoyancy and using their wings to glide in a sawtooth pattern through the water column along a subsurface transect. At user specified intervals, the glider surfaces, transmits its data to shore via the Iridium satellite system, and checks its email boxes for new directions or missions. The Slocum Gliders have been operated jointly by COOL scientists and Webb Research Corporation engineers in science experiments since 1999, transitioning to sustained deployments by the COOL Operations Center in 2003. Since then, the gliders have logged over 140,000 km of sampling in remote places such as Antarctica, Alaska, South Africa, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Norway, and in regions closer to home including the New York Bight, offshore Massachusetts, Virginia and Florida. The fleet of 15 gliders now includes long duration gliders capable of several months of flight, stemming from the historic mission of RU27, the first glider to cross an ocean basin. Sensors on the gliders currently include a SeaBird CTD and a payload bay capable of carrying one of several optical sensors, including fluorometers and backscatter meters, a Beam Attenuation Meter (BAM), a hyperspectral spectrophotometer (Breve Buster), or a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) sensor. Newly introduced sensors include a LISST for sediment transport measurement, pH sensor and a zooplankton acoustic sensor. A mission control center monitors glider progress on current missions and alerts operators of any problems. Artificial intelligence is being added to the mission control center using an Agent oriented programming approach similar to NASA’s approach for intelligent spacecraft. Reactive Agents are currently used to make many of the yes/no control decisions while Planning Agents are being developed to adjust flight paths to optimize sampling for specific goals.
Unoccupied Aircraft Systems (UAS)
RUCOOL has recently begun utilizing Unoccupied Aircraft Systems (UAS) or drones as platforms for our research. The Center currently maintains a fleet of four vehicles for a multitude of projects. Two members of the Center hold their Remote Pilot license as certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). These platforms provide on-demand remote sensing capabilities for a number of sensors with low cost and reduced human risk to other aerial platforms.
The Rutgers COOL lab shares other laboratory facilities. First, the Ecology and Physiology of Marine Organisms laboratory (Dr. Grace Saba) is designed for investigating zooplankton and fish response to environmental stressors and includes a Loligo Systems respirometry system (DAQ-M, Witrox-4 boxes, AutoResp software), metabolic chambers of various sizes, an Imaging Flow CytoBot (IFCB), SBE 55 Frame ECO Water Sampler (with 6 x 4-liter Niskin bottles), Agilent 1100 series High Performance Liquid Chromatograph system, Turner Trilogy laboratory fluorometer, Zeiss Axio inverted microscope (with Axiocam and imaging software), Zeiss Discovery V8 dissecting microscope (with camera), Zeiss Stemi 508 dissecting microscope, ring nets (various mesh sizes, filtering and non-filtering cod ends, and flowmeters), a Metrohm Alkalkinty Titrator (888 Titrando, iUnitrode pH electrodes, and accompanying software), and a Honeywell Durafet III pH electrode with UDA2182 analyzer. Additionally, we share one of the world’s largest phytoplankton analysis facilities built in collaboration with Dr. Paul Falkowski’s Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Lab for performing studies in molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics. The facility is shared between Drs. Falkowski and Schofield, as well as Drs. Kay D. Bidle and Maxim Gorbunov. The facility is outfitted with a full suite of microbiological supplies, several 44 sq ft. Honeywell constant temperature rooms, two mass spectrometers, two scanning UV/vis Aminco DW-2000 spectrophotometers, 3 Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometers, an SLM Luminescence UV/vis spectrofluorometer, a Coulter Multisizer, a full genomics laboratory with full sequence capability, a Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometer, 3 Photosynthetrons, 1 Shimadzu High Performance Liquid Chromatograph, a Perkin Elmer C/N Analyzer, a scintillation counter, an Olympus IX71 Inverted Microscope with epifluorescence, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, and modulation contrast capabilities, an Accuri C6 benchtop flow cytometer, an InFlux Model 209S Mariner flow cytometer and high-speed cell sorter (with solid-state 355nm 60mW UV and 488nm 200mW blue lasers, a 4 way sort module, 2 scatter, 2 polarized and 4 fluorescence detectors; BD Biosciences).
Shipboard Systems and Sensors
COOL researchers maintain an extensive set of towed platforms, winched profiling systems, and hand-deployed profilers for shipboard sampling. Towed systems include a SWATH downward facing ADCP and a Guildline Inc. MiniBat undulating tow body containing a FSI CTD, a WET Labs Fluorometer and a DTA OBS. Profiling sensors include standard physical CTDs and numerous bio-optical sensors to characterize both the apparent and inherent optical properties. Optical sensors include a Satlantic downward and upward facing ultraviolet/visible radiometer, a WET Labs ac-9, a WET Labs spectral fluorescence excitation/emission fluorometer (SaFire), 2 3-wavelegnth WET Labs EcoVSF systems, and 2 Sequoia LISST systems, a Satlantic hyperspectral radiometric buoy (TSRB), a HOBI labs 6-wavelength backscatter sensor (HS-6), a bioluminescence bathyphotometer (BIOLUM) and an above water hyperspectral HOBI labs reflectance meter (HYDRORAD).